Biography

LEE Teng-hui (Lǐ Dēnghuī 李登辉)

David D. BUCK Lee Teng-hui was the first Taiwanese native to lead the government and the Chinese Nationalist Party (Guomindang/Kuomintang) in Taiwan. His leadership brought full democracy to Taiwan. Since 2000 former president Lee has become an outspoken advocate of Taiwanese nationalism. Born in 1923 when Taiwan was a Japanese colony, Lee Teng-hui attended Christian schools as a boy and […]

HU Jintao (Hú Jǐntāo 胡锦涛)

HU Jintao (Hú Jǐntāo 胡锦涛)

Wenshan JIA and Cassie LYNCH Hu Jintao inspecting the honor guard in Nairobi, Kenya. China is actively trying to expand its relationships with sub-Saharan African governments. Hu Jintao is the current President of the People’s Republic of China. During his two terms in office he has faced several crises, with varying degrees of success. His handling of the 2008 Sichuan […]

LI Peng (Lǐ Péng 李鹏)

Joel CAMPBELL Li Peng, son of Zhou Enlai, was premier of the PRC from 1988 until 1998. He achieved notoriety for supporting the crackdown during the 1989 Tiananmen protest. Li also took steps to rein in China’s high inflation in the 90s and begin sweeping reforms of state-owned enterprises. Born in Chengdu, Sichuan Province, Li Peng is the orphaned son […]

LIANG Qichao (Liáng Qǐchāo 梁啟超)

LIANG Qichao (Liáng Qǐchāo 梁啟超)

Michael C. LAZICH Photograph of Liang Qichao from the 17 April 1901 issue of the Tung Wah News. Liang Qichao 梁啟超 formed the moderate Progressive Party after the Republican Revolution of 1911 and twice served as a cabinet-level minister. He later withdrew to a life of teaching and scholarship. Liang Qichao was a reform-minded scholar and essayist who rose to […]

Kangxi, Emperor (Kāngxī huángdì 康熙皇帝)

Kangxi, Emperor (Kāngxī huángdì 康熙皇帝)

Robert John PERRINS During Emperor Kangxi’s sixty-year reign the borders of the Qing dynasty’s empire were strengthened, Manchu rule in China was solidified, and China’s economy, culture, and population prospered. The sixty-year reign of Emperor Kangxi, from 1662 to 1722, was one of the longest and most successful in China’s imperial history. In addition to solidifying Manchu rule in China […]

CHIANG Kai-shek (Jiǎng Jièshí 蒋介石)

CHIANG Kai-shek (Jiǎng Jièshí 蒋介石)

Winberg CHAI Photograph of Chiang Kai-Shek taken during a visit to an Army Air Force base, March 1945. Chiang Kai-shek, along with Sun Yat-sen and Mao Zedong, is considered to be one of the three most important figures shaping Chinese history in the twentieth century. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS. Chiang Kai-shek was the successor to Sun Yat-sen and political leader and […]

CHEN Yun (Chén Yún 陈云)

CHEN Yun (Chén Yún 陈云)

Joel R. CAMPBELL Chen Yun, one of the “eight immortals” of the Chinese Communist Party, meets with the Chinese Table Tennis team in 1961—a decade before “Ping-Pong diplomacy” changed the relationship between the United States and China. Chen Yun, one of the most influential of China’s early Communist leaders, occupied a central place in the inner circle of leadership for […]

ZUO Zongtang (Zuǒ Zōngtáng 左宗棠)

ZUO Zongtang (Zuǒ Zōngtáng 左宗棠)

CHEN Shiwei Portrait of General Tso (Zuo Zongtang), by Pavel Piassetsky, 1875. Zuo Zongtang, a Chinese statesman, served during China’s fourteen-year-long Taiping Rebellion. Zuo Zongtang was a renowned military leader of nineteenth-century China; he led the Chinese military in the suppression of the Muslim and Nian rebellions (1868–1880), negotiated with the Russians, and led the war against the French in […]

Cixi Empress Dowager (Cíxǐ Tàihòu 慈禧太后)

Cixi Empress Dowager (Cíxǐ Tàihòu 慈禧太后)

Shiwei CHEN The Empress Dowager Cixi at court. Cixi, a consort of Emperor Xian Feng (reigned 1850–1861), was a powerful and manipulative force in Qing dynasty politics for nearly half a century. When her son, Xian Feng’s successor, died without an heir, Cixi named her three-year-old nephew Guang Xu (reigned 1875–1908) to the throne. Through her regency Cixi held power […]

SUN Yat-sen (Sūn Zhōngshān 孙中山)

SUN Yat-sen (Sūn Zhōngshān 孙中山)

Jiu-Hwa Lo UPSHUR Portrait of Sun Yat-sen. China honors Sun as the father of the republic. Sun Yat-sen was a revolutionary leader and founder of Republican China (1912–1949). An uprising in 1911 resulted in his election as provisional president of the new republic and the abdication of the Qing dynasty emperor in 1912. He devised what he called the “Three […]