Biography

MAO Zedong (Máo Zédōng 毛泽东)

MAO Zedong (Máo Zédōng 毛泽东)

Dorothea A. L. MARTIN A young Mao Zedong, leader of China’s Communists, addresses some of his followers on 6 December 1944. FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT LIBRARY. Mao Zedong was a founding member of the Chinese Communist Party and the architect of China’s Communist revolution. Some of his socialist polices failed, but his legacy as a firm nationalist leader and the “founding […]

STILWELL, Joseph (Shǐdíwēi史迪威)

STILWELL, Joseph (Shǐdíwēi史迪威)

Thomas P. DOLAN 11 October 1944. General Joseph W. Stilwell talking with Major General Curtis E. LeMay of the 20th Bomber command, at a B-29 base. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS. General Joseph Stilwell, known as “Vinegar Joe” to his soldiers, spent much of his Army career in Asia. As a young officer he briefly visited Shanghai and Hong Kong in 1911. […]

WU Zetian (Wǔ Zétiān 武则天)

WU Zetian (Wǔ Zétiān 武则天)

Jennifer W. JAY Tang court ladies from the tomb painting of Princess Yongtai in the Qianling Mausoleum, near Xi’an in Shaanxi Province, from the year 706. Empress Wu Zetian would also later be buried at the Qiangling Mausoleum. Wu Zetian 武则天 was the only woman to rule China as an emperor in name, declaring herself emperor after deposing her sons. She […]

Chinggis Khan (Chéngjísī Hàn 成吉思汗)

Chinggis Khan (Chéngjísī Hàn 成吉思汗)

Timothy M. MAY Historical illustration, “The Encampment of a Patriarch,” from Ghengis Khan by Jacob Abbott. Although he is known in the West most often as “Genghis Khan” (meaning “resolute leader”) he was born with the name “Temujin.” Chinggis Khan was a tribal leader in the late twelfth and early thirteenth centuries. He first united Mongolia, then conquered northern China […]

ZHANG Zhidong (Zhāng Zhīdòng 张之洞)

ZHANG Zhidong (Zhāng Zhīdòng 张之洞)

Michael C. LAZICH Zhang Zhidong, a Confucian scholar-official of the late Qing dynasty, advocated a philosophy of modernizing reform: “Chinese learning as the essence, Western learning for practical development.” Zhang Zhidong was a Confucian scholar-official of the late nineteenth century who was closely associated with China’s Self-Strengthening Movement. Appointed by the Qing government as viceroy of Liangjiang, Zhang Zhidong promoted […]

LIU Shaoqi (Liú Shàoqí 刘少奇)

LIU Shaoqi (Liú Shàoqí 刘少奇)

Unryu SUGANUMA Portrait of revolutionary and statesman Liu Shaoqi, a contemporary of Mao Zedong. PHOTO COURTESY OF PAUL AND BERNICE NOLL. Liu Shaoqi was a leader of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) whose career symbolized the political struggles in the People’s Republic of China during Mao Zedong’s era. Although it was once thought Liu would be Mao’s successor he was […]

MA Ying-jeou (Mǎ Yīngjiǔ 马英九)

MA Ying-jeou (Mǎ Yīngjiǔ 马英九)

Winberg CHAI Ma Ying-jeou, the current president of Taiwan, is a member of the Kuomintang, Taiwan’s Nationalist party. He is often called “Taiwan’s Obama” by the Taiwanese media. Elected president of Tawain in 2008 after having served as mayor of Taipei, Ma Ying-jeou has become very popular, particularly with young people, for his stands against corruption and for working toward […]

CHIANG Ching-kuo (Jiǎng Jīngguó 蒋经国)

Winberg CHAI Chiang Ching-kuo, son of Chiang Kai-shek (also a former president of the Republic of China, i.e., Taiwan, 1949–), was arguably the most influential political leader in Taiwan until his death in 1988. In a public opinion poll reported by Shijie Ribao (World Journal) in 2007, 65 percent of Taiwanese citizens surveyed ranked Chiang as the president who made […]

Gang of Four (Sìrénbāng 四人帮)

Gang of Four (Sìrénbāng 四人帮)

Colin MACKERRAS A propaganda painting pointing the finger at the Gang of Four. STEFAN LANDSBERGER COLLECTION. The Gang of Four (siren bang) is the name given to the four most influential supporters of the Chinese Cultural Revolution (1966–1976), namely Zhang Chunqiao, Yao Wenyuan, Wang Hongwen, and Jiang Qing. Their arrest in 1976 represented the end of the Cultural Revolution, according […]

BORODIN Mikhail (Bào Luótíng 鲍罗廷)

BORODIN Mikhail (Bào Luótíng 鲍罗廷)

CHEN Zhihong Hiding their extreme political rivalries, leaders of the revolutionary Right and Left pose before a train at the start of the Northern Expedition. From far left, the Russian agent Mikhail Borodin, a Chinese secretary, Borodin’s wife, Fanya, Madame Lioa Chung-k’ai, the second Madame Chiang Kai-shek (apparently pregnant at the time), Moscow’s General Galen, Chiang Kai-shek himself, his son, […]