Movement

Self-Strengthening Movement (Yángwù Yùndòng 洋务运动)

Self-Strengthening Movement (Yángwù Yùndòng 洋务运动)

Charles DOBBS Prince Gong, a member of the ruling clan of the Qing dynasty and one of the chief proponents of liberal reform that aimed to strengthen the empire against Western encroachment. The Self-Strengthening Movement, which began in 1861, was an effort by the Qing dynasty to restore power so China could resist Western encroachments, especially after the Second Opium […]

Three and Five Antis Campaigns (Sānfǎn Wǔfǎn 三反五反)

Stephanie CHUNG The Chinese Communist Party’s Three Antis Campaign of 1951–1952 targeted waste, corruption, and bureaucratism. The party’s Five Antis Campaign, launched soon afterward, targeted bribery, tax evasion, theft of state assets, cheating on government contracts, and theft of capital. Both campaigns led to mass suicides, as well as placing many hitherto private industries in the hands of the government. […]

Hundred Flowers Campaign (Bǎihuā Yùndòng 百花运动)

Stephanie CHUNG The Hundred Flowers Campaign was an intense, but short-lived, period that encouraged open criticism and discussion of the Communist regime in the otherwise tightly controlled intellectual climate of 1950s China. It resulted in another campaign aimed to purge those considered to be at the “right” of the party. In May 1956 Mao Zedong (1893–1976), leader of the People’s […]

May Fourth Movement (Wǔ Sì Yùndòng 五四运动)

David L. KENLEY The May Fourth Movement is the name given to the collective effort made by intellectuals in China between 1915 and 1923 to cast off traditional Confucian values and undergo a cultural rejuvenation. A milestone of the era occurred on 4 May 1919 when demonstrators protested the treaty that ended World War I. The treaty recognized Japan’s claims […]

Tibetan Uprising of 1959 (1959 nián Xīzàng Qǐyì 1959 年西臧起义)

Alex McKAY In 1959 Tibet, now an autonomous region of China, revolted against Chinese rule. Many Chinese were surprised when they were not welcomed as liberators following the 1949–1950 invasion, viewing their takeover of Tibet as succor from a feudalist system. The Tibetans were greatly outnumbered and ill-equipped for revolt. Their uprising was crushed, and the Dalai Lama, the Tibetan […]

Agricultural Cooperatives Movement (Nóngcūn gōngshèhuà yùndòng 农村公社化运动)

Agricultural Cooperatives Movement (Nóngcūn gōngshèhuà yùndòng 农村公社化运动)

John Q. TIAN A woman carries tea-laden baskets at the Dragon Well Tea Commune in Hangzhou, 1970s. During the 1950s, small family farms were consolidated into larger agricultural cooperatives. PHOTO BY JOAN LEBOLD COHEN. The agricultural cooperatives movement, which sought to move rural China beyond small family farming, was a significant step in the socialist transformation of the Chinese countryside. […]

Rural Reconstruction Movement (Xiāngcūn Jiànshè Yùndòng 乡村建设运动)

Rural Reconstruction Movement (Xiāngcūn Jiànshè Yùndòng 乡村建设运动)

Charles W. HAYFORD A woman separates wheat from chaff in the Lanzhou, Gansu Province. Over 60 per cent of China’s population still lives in rural areas. Because the media so often focuses on “China’s economic miracle” and its booming urban population, many Westerners are unaware that China’s vast hinterland is in a dangerous state of crisis. PHOTO BY JOAN LEBOLD […]

Yan’an Rectification Campaign (Yán’ān Zhěngfēng Yùndòng 延安整风运动)

Yan’an Rectification Campaign (Yán’ān Zhěngfēng Yùndòng 延安整风运动)

King-fai TAM Kang Sheng, an official of the CCP, was closely involved in the Cultural Revolution purges during the Yanan Rectification Movement. The Yan’an Rectification Campaign of 1942 established the modus operandi of subsequent ideological campaigns in the history of Chinese Communism. It signified the expansion of the power of the Communist leaders from political and economic realms into other […]

Blue Shirts Society (Lanyīshè 蓝衣社)

LAW Yuk-fun. The Blue Shirts Society, composed of the young graduates of Huangpu Military Academy, were the secret agents of Nationalist China’s leader Chiang Kai-shek during the 1930s. Modeled on the European fascist practices, the Blue Shirts pledged unquestioned loyalty to Chiang and engaged in subversive activities and mass socialization, which helped to consolidate Chiang’s authoritarian rule before the Second […]

Five-Anti Campaign (Wǔ-fǎn Yùndòng 五反运动)

LAW Yuk-fun The Five-Anti Campaign ????, launched in 1952, was a nation-wide movement aimed at eliminating bribery, theft of state property and economic information, tax evasion, and cheating on government contracts by private enterprise and capitalists. The campaign succeeded in consolidating the government’s control over the economy, which facilitated the country’s transition to socialism. On 26 January 1952 the government […]