Tag Archives: Qing dynasty

WANG Fuzhi (Wáng Fūzhī 王夫之)

Yamin XU Wang Fuzhi (1619–1692) was one of the most important scholars of the Ming–Qing period whose pragmatic philosophies of statecraft challenged long-standing traditions, and his writings influence cultural ideas of Chinese nationalism even today. Wang Fuzhi was one of … Continue reading

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HUANG Zongxi (Huáng Zōngxī 黃宗羲)

Yamin XU Huang Zongxi, the famous Qing dynasty scholar and author. Huang roundly criticized tyrannical monarchies in favor of democratic principles long before his Western counterparts. Huang Zongxi was an important philosopher and author who worked to uphold Confucian principles … Continue reading

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Canton System (Guǎngdōng Tǐzhì 广东体制)

Raphael ISRAELI The Canton System refers to the Qing dynasty’s practice of confining Westerners who wanted to trade with “The Middle Kingdom” to the confines of the city of Canton (now known as Guangzhou), believing they would be easier to … Continue reading

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Lifan Yuan (Lǐfānyuàn 理藩院)

Paul D. BUELL The Lifan Yuan (Office to Administer Foreign Barbarians), established in 1638, was the Qing dynasty’s principal organization for supervising the tribute system, during which outsiders brought (but mainly received) gifts to the Chinese court. It persisted in … Continue reading

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Self-Strengthening Movement (Yángwù Yùndòng 洋务运动)

Charles DOBBS Prince Gong, a member of the ruling clan of the Qing dynasty and one of the chief proponents of liberal reform that aimed to strengthen the empire against Western encroachment. The Self-Strengthening Movement, which began in 1861, was … Continue reading

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Boxer Rebellion (Yìhétuán Yùndòng 义和团运动)

Alan BAUMLER Boxers on trial before the High Court, China. The Boxer Rebellion of 1899–1900 was a bloody uprising against Western imperialism in north China. The Boxers, a group known for their expertise in the martial arts, targeted both foreigners … Continue reading

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Taiping Rebellion (Tàipíng Tiānguó Yùndòng 太平天国运动)

Yingcong DAI “The Taiping War in China: costumes of imperial mandarins and soldiers.” From Illustrated London News, 1864. Led by Hong Xiuquan (1814–1864), a frustrated candidate in the civil service examinations and the self-proclaimed younger brother of Christ, the Taiping … Continue reading

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Boxer Protocol (Xinchou Treaty) (Xīnchǒu Tiáoyuē 辛丑条约)

Raphael ISRAELI Stereographic print from 1901. The original caption read: U.S. Minister E.H. Conger and staff, heroes of the awful siege—in the American Legation, Peking, China. BY UNDERWOOD & UNDERWOOD. The Boxer Protocol was the treaty that ended the Boxer … Continue reading

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Treaty of Wangxia (Wàngxià Tiáoyuē 望厦条约)

Steven PHILLIPS The 1844 Treaty of Wangxia set a pattern for Sino-American relations, as United States diplomats sought to build upon British imperialism and to stand apart from it, to establish principles, and to maximize profit. Chinese usually point to … Continue reading

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Hundred Days Reform (Bǎirì Wéixīn 臭名远扬)

Charles DOBBS Kang Youwei, a prominent scholar and reformer of the late Qing dynasty. called for dramatic changes in the structure of government, the examination system for entrance into government service, and the relationship of the government to the Chinese … Continue reading

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