Post Tagged with: "Qing dynasty"

WANG Fuzhi (Wáng Fūzhī 王夫之)|Wáng Fūzhī 王夫之 (WANG Fuzhi)

Yamin XU Wang Fuzhi (1619–1692) was one of the most important scholars of the Ming–Qing period whose pragmatic philosophies of statecraft challenged long-standing traditions, and his writings influence cultural ideas of Chinese nationalism even today. Wang Fuzhi was one of the most important Chinese thinkers and scholars of the Ming–Qing period (1368–1912), and his philosophies influence cultural ideas of Chinese […]

HUANG Zongxi (Huáng Zōngxī 黃宗羲)|Huáng Zōngxī 黃宗羲 (HUANG Zongxi)

HUANG Zongxi (Huáng Zōngxī 黃宗羲)|Huáng Zōngxī 黃宗羲 (HUANG Zongxi)

Yamin XU Huang Zongxi, the famous Qing dynasty scholar and author. Huang roundly criticized tyrannical monarchies in favor of democratic principles long before his Western counterparts. Huang Zongxi was an important philosopher and author who worked to uphold Confucian principles of government after the fall of the Ming dynasty in 1644. Huang roundly criticized tyrannical monarchies in favor of democratic […]

Canton System (Guǎngdōng Tǐzhì 广东体制)|Guǎngdōng Tǐzhì 广东体制 (Canton System)

Raphael ISRAELI The Canton System refers to the Qing dynasty’s practice of confining Westerners who wanted to trade with “The Middle Kingdom” to the confines of the city of Canton (now known as Guangzhou), believing they would be easier to control if confined to one area. The Chinese mandarinate kept extremely tight control of foreign trade, keeping a careful eye […]

Lifan Yuan (Lǐfānyuàn 理藩院)|Lǐfānyuàn 理藩院 (Lifan Yuan)

Paul D. BUELL The Lifan Yuan (Office to Administer Foreign Barbarians), established in 1638, was the Qing dynasty’s principal organization for supervising the tribute system, during which outsiders brought (but mainly received) gifts to the Chinese court. It persisted in this important role until nearly the end of the dynasty when pressures exerted by the outside world, principally contact with […]

Self-Strengthening Movement (Yángwù Yùndòng 洋务运动)|Yángwù Yùndòng 洋务运动 (Self-Strengthening Movement)

Self-Strengthening Movement (Yángwù Yùndòng 洋务运动)|Yángwù Yùndòng 洋务运动 (Self-Strengthening Movement)

Charles DOBBS Prince Gong, a member of the ruling clan of the Qing dynasty and one of the chief proponents of liberal reform that aimed to strengthen the empire against Western encroachment. The Self-Strengthening Movement, which began in 1861, was an effort by the Qing dynasty to restore power so China could resist Western encroachments, especially after the Second Opium […]

Boxer Rebellion (Yìhétuán Yùndòng 义和团运动)|Yìhétuán Yùndòng 义和团运动 (Boxer Rebellion)

Boxer Rebellion (Yìhétuán Yùndòng 义和团运动)|Yìhétuán Yùndòng 义和团运动 (Boxer Rebellion)

Alan BAUMLER Boxers on trial before the High Court, China. The Boxer Rebellion of 1899–1900 was a bloody uprising against Western imperialism in north China. The Boxers, a group known for their expertise in the martial arts, targeted both foreigners and Chinese Christians. Foreign troops were sent in to put down the rebellion, resulting eventually in even more foreign control […]

Taiping Rebellion (Tàipíng Tiānguó Yùndòng 太平天国运动)|Tàipíng Tiānguó Yùndòng 太平天国运动 (Taiping Rebellion)

Taiping Rebellion (Tàipíng Tiānguó Yùndòng 太平天国运动)|Tàipíng Tiānguó Yùndòng 太平天国运动 (Taiping Rebellion)

Yingcong DAI “The Taiping War in China: costumes of imperial mandarins and soldiers.” From Illustrated London News, 1864. Led by Hong Xiuquan (1814–1864), a frustrated candidate in the civil service examinations and the self-proclaimed younger brother of Christ, the Taiping Rebellion (1851–1864) seriously challenged China’s Qing dynasty and was the largest rebellion in Chinese history. Millions of lives were lost […]

Boxer Protocol (Xinchou Treaty) (Xīnchǒu Tiáoyuē 辛丑条约)|Xīnchǒu Tiáoyuē 辛丑条约 (Boxer Protocol (Xinchou Treaty))

Boxer Protocol (Xinchou Treaty) (Xīnchǒu Tiáoyuē 辛丑条约)|Xīnchǒu Tiáoyuē 辛丑条约 (Boxer Protocol (Xinchou Treaty))

Raphael ISRAELI Stereographic print from 1901. The original caption read: U.S. Minister E.H. Conger and staff, heroes of the awful siege—in the American Legation, Peking, China. BY UNDERWOOD & UNDERWOOD. The Boxer Protocol was the treaty that ended the Boxer Rebellion of 1899–1900, awarding indemnities to the eleven victorious foreign powers. In 1937 Japan invoked provisions of the protocol when […]

Treaty of Wangxia (Wàngxià Tiáoyuē 望厦条约)|Wàngxià Tiáoyuē 望厦条约 (Treaty of Wangxia)

Steven PHILLIPS The 1844 Treaty of Wangxia set a pattern for Sino-American relations, as United States diplomats sought to build upon British imperialism and to stand apart from it, to establish principles, and to maximize profit. Chinese usually point to the 1844 treaty as proof that the United States had joined the ranks of the imperialists. Before the 1840s, the […]

Hundred Days Reform (Bǎirì Wéixīn 臭名远扬)|Bǎirì Wéixīn 臭名远扬 (Hundred Days Reform)

Hundred Days Reform (Bǎirì Wéixīn 臭名远扬)|Bǎirì Wéixīn 臭名远扬 (Hundred Days Reform)

Charles DOBBS Kang Youwei, a prominent scholar and reformer of the late Qing dynasty. called for dramatic changes in the structure of government, the examination system for entrance into government service, and the relationship of the government to the Chinese people. The “Hundred Days Reform” was an effort, over the summer of 1898, by the young emperor Guang Xu and […]