Post Tagged with: "social value"

Social Harmony (Shèhuì héxié 社会和谐)|Shèhuì héxié 社会和谐 (Social Harmony)

Social Harmony (Shèhuì héxié 社会和谐)|Shèhuì héxié 社会和谐 (Social Harmony)

Kerry BROWN A billboard advertises China’s one-child family planning policy. Since the time of Confucius, social order has been based on individuals knowing their positions and understanding their obligations to those above them—especially in the family. The demands of China’s rapidly expanding population often challenge such ancient structures. Harmony as a philosophical objective has been part of Chinese thought for […]

Filial Piety (Xiào 孝)|Xiào 孝 (Filial Piety)

Filial Piety (Xiào 孝)|Xiào 孝 (Filial Piety)

Keith N. KNAPP This paper cutout depicts the legendary figure of Mu Lan, a woman who expressed her filial piety by disguising herself as a man to join the army and serve twelve years in place of her elderly father. Throughout China’s premodern history, xiao (filial piety) was its most significant social value. It enjoyed such favor because it strengthened […]

Human Rights (Rénquán 人权)|Rénquán 人权 (Human Rights)

Human Rights (Rénquán 人权)|Rénquán 人权 (Human Rights)

Richard C. KAGAN Xi’an students protesting. The rallying cries of activists echoed throughout China’s turbulent twentieth century. Scholars, politicians, and activists—inside and outside of China—have long debated the theories behind and the application of human rights in the world’s most populous country, and Western media thrives on stories denouncing China’s human rights record. This debate probably causes more misunderstanding between […]

Socialist Spiritual Civilization (Shèhuìzhǔyì jīngshén wénmíng 社会主义精神文明)|Shèhuìzhǔyì jīngshén wénmíng 社会主义精神文明 (Socialist Spiritual Civilization)

Daniel C. LYNCH “Building a socialist spiritual civilization” is an official goal of the ruling Chinese Communist Party that was first proclaimed in 1986. The commitment to establish such an objective officially was triggered by deep concerns that as China advanced economically, it would regress spiritually. After the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) adopted economic reform and opening policies in the […]

Political Participation (Zhèngzhì cānyù 政治参与)|Zhèngzhì cānyù 政治参与 (Political Participation)

Political Participation (Zhèngzhì cānyù 政治参与)|Zhèngzhì cānyù 政治参与 (Political Participation)

Thomas HEBERER Passersby view a list of candidates for a municipal election in the northwest district of Beijing. China’s traditional political culture allowed the majority of the population only a small role in local and national politics. PHOTO BY JOAN LEBOLD COHEN. Throughout China’s long history people have enjoyed little in the way of political participation. Although formal involvement has […]

Marriage and Family (Hūnyīn hé jiātíng 婚姻和家庭)|Hūnyīn hé jiātíng 婚姻和家庭 (Marriage and Family)

Marriage and Family (Hūnyīn hé jiātíng 婚姻和家庭)|Hūnyīn hé jiātíng 婚姻和家庭 (Marriage and Family)

Judith BANISTER Mothers and teachers take beribboned little girls to a park. PHOTO BY JOAN LEBOLD COHEN. Marriage in China is essentially universal; divorce is rare. The traditional family system is based on male kinship. Since the 1970s China’s family-planning policy has required couples who want a child to apply for permission. For twenty-five hundred years, through relatively secure and […]

Disability (Cánzhàng 残障)|Cánzhàng 残障 (Disability)

Disability (Cánzhàng 残障)|Cánzhàng 残障 (Disability)

Jean W. YAN A blind man plays an erhu on the streets of Beijing. A girl, also blind, sits beside him. PHOTO BY TOM CHRISTENSEN Approximately 83 million individuals in China have one or more disabilities. Much progress has taken place over the past thirty years for China’s disabled population, with the establishment of organizations and networks as well as […]

Social Stratification (Shèhuì jiēcéng fēnhuà 社会阶层分化)|Shèhuì jiēcéng fēnhuà 社会阶层分化 (Social Stratification)

Social Stratification (Shèhuì jiēcéng fēnhuà 社会阶层分化)|Shèhuì jiēcéng fēnhuà 社会阶层分化 (Social Stratification)

Rebecca MATTHEWS A busy barbershop in China. After the Communist Party came to power it attempted to narrow the gaps in income, education, and opportunity between rural and urban populations. PHOTO BY JOAN LEBOLD COHEN. After the Communist Party came to power in 1949 it attempted to narrow the gaps in income and wealth between men and women and between […]

Marriage, Imperial (Fēngjiàn dìguó shídài de hūnyīn 封建帝国时代的婚姻)|Fēngjiàn dìguó shídài de hūnyīn 封建帝国时代的婚姻 (Marriage, Imperial)

Marriage, Imperial (Fēngjiàn dìguó shídài de hūnyīn 封建帝国时代的婚姻)|Fēngjiàn dìguó shídài de hūnyīn 封建帝国时代的婚姻 (Marriage, Imperial)

Jiu-hwa Lo UPSHUR One of the wedding traditions of wealthy families in imperial China was to transport the bride to her in-law’s house in a sedan chair. In imperial China (211 BCE–1912 CE), the institution of marriage—which influenced succession and property rights—followed laws and customs based in both Chinese tradition and Confucian principles. In Confucian China, as in most of […]

Women, Role of (Nǚrén de dìwèi 女人的地位)|Nǚrén de dìwèi 女人的地位 (Women, Role of)

Women, Role of (Nǚrén de dìwèi 女人的地位)|Nǚrén de dìwèi 女人的地位 (Women, Role of)

Elizabeth A. LITTELL-LAMB Historical illustration of women at work. The Chinese saying, “Women hold up half the sky,” reflects the importance of women’s roles through history—in the family, the field, and the factory. Chinese women, as wives, mothers, and workers, have been central to the functioning of both state and society. In recent years they have contributed to Chinese state-building […]