Tag Archives: social value

Social Harmony (Shèhuì héxié 社会和谐)

Kerry BROWN A billboard advertises China’s one-child family planning policy. Since the time of Confucius, social order has been based on individuals knowing their positions and understanding their obligations to those above them—especially in the family. The demands of China’s … Continue reading

Posted in Berkshire Encyclopedia of China, Concept, Values and Worldview | Tagged , , | Comments Off

Filial Piety (Xiào 孝)

Keith N. KNAPP This paper cutout depicts the legendary figure of Mu Lan, a woman who expressed her filial piety by disguising herself as a man to join the army and serve twelve years in place of her elderly father. … Continue reading

Posted in Berkshire Encyclopedia of China, Concept, Values and Worldview | Tagged , , | Comments Off

Human Rights (Rénquán 人权)

Richard C. KAGAN Xi’an students protesting. The rallying cries of activists echoed throughout China’s turbulent twentieth century. Scholars, politicians, and activists—inside and outside of China—have long debated the theories behind and the application of human rights in the world’s most … Continue reading

Posted in Berkshire Encyclopedia of China, Governance, Ideology | Tagged , | Comments Off

Socialist Spiritual Civilization (Shèhuìzhǔyì jīngshén wénmíng 社会主义精神文明)

Daniel C. LYNCH “Building a socialist spiritual civilization” is an official goal of the ruling Chinese Communist Party that was first proclaimed in 1986. The commitment to establish such an objective officially was triggered by deep concerns that as China … Continue reading

Posted in Berkshire Encyclopedia of China, Governance, Ideology | Tagged , , | Comments Off

Political Participation (Zhèngzhì cānyù 政治参与)

Thomas HEBERER Passersby view a list of candidates for a municipal election in the northwest district of Beijing. China’s traditional political culture allowed the majority of the population only a small role in local and national politics. PHOTO BY JOAN … Continue reading

Posted in Berkshire Encyclopedia of China, Governance, Ideology | Tagged , , | Comments Off

Marriage and Family (Hūnyīn hé jiātíng 婚姻和家庭)

Judith BANISTER Mothers and teachers take beribboned little girls to a park. PHOTO BY JOAN LEBOLD COHEN. Marriage in China is essentially universal; divorce is rare. The traditional family system is based on male kinship. Since the 1970s China’s family-planning … Continue reading

Posted in Berkshire Encyclopedia of China, Society and Social Welfare | Tagged , | Comments Off

Disability (Cánzhàng 残障)

Jean W. YAN A blind man plays an erhu on the streets of Beijing. A girl, also blind, sits beside him. PHOTO BY TOM CHRISTENSEN Approximately 83 million individuals in China have one or more disabilities. Much progress has taken … Continue reading

Posted in Berkshire Encyclopedia of China, Policy, Society and Social Welfare | Tagged , | Comments Off

Social Stratification (Shèhuì jiēcéng fēnhuà 社会阶层分化)

Rebecca MATTHEWS A busy barbershop in China. After the Communist Party came to power it attempted to narrow the gaps in income, education, and opportunity between rural and urban populations. PHOTO BY JOAN LEBOLD COHEN. After the Communist Party came … Continue reading

Posted in Berkshire Encyclopedia of China, Policy, Society and Social Welfare | Tagged , , | Comments Off

Marriage, Imperial (Fēngjiàn dìguó shídài de hūnyīn 封建帝国时代的婚姻)

Jiu-hwa Lo UPSHUR One of the wedding traditions of wealthy families in imperial China was to transport the bride to her in-law’s house in a sedan chair. In imperial China (211 BCE–1912 CE), the institution of marriage—which influenced succession and … Continue reading

Posted in Berkshire Encyclopedia of China, Customs, Society and Social Welfare | Tagged , , | Comments Off

Women, Role of (Nǚrén de dìwèi 女人的地位)

Elizabeth A. LITTELL-LAMB Historical illustration of women at work. The Chinese saying, “Women hold up half the sky,” reflects the importance of women’s roles through history—in the family, the field, and the factory. Chinese women, as wives, mothers, and workers, … Continue reading

Posted in Berkshire Encyclopedia of China, Customs, Society and Social Welfare | Tagged , | Comments Off