A carved stone guard at the Temple of Confucius at Qufu in Shandong Province, the legendary birthplace of Confucius. Eastern Han dynasty, first/second century CE. The site at Qufu draws almost as many visitors as Beijing’s Forbidden City. PHOTO BY JOAN LEBOLD COHEN.

The teaching of the philosopher Confucius inspired philosophers and statesmen for more than twenty-five-hundred years. Confucianism stresses the importance of education for moral development of the individual so that the state can

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