Beatrice S. BARTLETT

Bridge at the Summer Palace on Kunming Lake, northeast of Beijing. The bridge was constructed during the Qing dynasty. PHOTO BY JOAN LEBOLD COHEN.

The Grand Council (Junjichu) was the high privy council that assisted the emperors of the mid- and late-Qing dynasty. Although its predecessor committees were organized almost midway through the dynasty during the reign of Emperor Yongzheng (1723–1735), the Grand Council was formally established only in 1738, near the beginning of the

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