FAN Xudong (Fàn Xùdōng 范旭东)|Fàn Xùdōng 范旭东 (FAN Xudong)
KWAN Man Bun
The founder of several businesses in Republican China (1912–1949), Fan Xudong was one of the first to raise capital and manage local markets by adopting the principles of network capitalism, including the concepts of shareholders, hierarchical management, and cartels.
Fan Xudong was born in Changsha, Hunan Province, in 1883; he was a descendant of the Song dynasty (960–1279) official Fan Zhongyin (989–1052). Fan’s father died when he was six, leaving the family impoverished. Fan and