Iron Rice Bowl (Tiěfànwǎn 铁饭碗)|Tiěfànwǎn 铁饭碗 (Iron Rice Bowl)
Commuters secure their bicycles before going to work. PHOTO BY JOAN LEBOLD COHEN.
During the pre-reform years of China’s planned economy, the Iron Rice Bowl was a range of social services guaranteed to workers. Services included lifetime employment, housing, health care, and pension plans.
Before China moved from a centrally planned economy to a market economy, the Iron Rice Bowl (tie fan wan) was an array of social services enjoyed by