A watch maker in Shanghai, 1979. When foreign goods were banned in China, Chinese purchased items manufactured domestically. PHOTO BY JOAN LEBOLD COHEN.
Chinese have used economic boycotts of foreign countries for over a hundred years to protest foreign interventions and perceived humiliations. In the early twentieth century, boycotts precipitated or accompanied major turning points in China’s relations with the imperialist powers, and since the 1980s have reemerged as China has reintegrated itself economically with capitalist