Michael C. LAZICH

Zhang Zhidong, a Confucian scholar-official of the late Qing dynasty, advocated a philosophy of modernizing reform: “Chinese learning as the essence, Western learning for practical development.”

Zhang Zhidong was a Confucian scholar-official of the late nineteenth century who was closely associated with China’s Self-Strengthening Movement. Appointed by the Qing government as viceroy of Liangjiang, Zhang Zhidong promoted Western-style industrialization through the establishment of a modern coal and steel complexes in

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By |2014-12-16T16:54:04-05:00January 23rd, 2012|Berkshire Encyclopedia of China, Biography, Governance|Comments Off on ZHANG Zhidong (Zhāng Zhīdòng 张之洞)|Zhāng Zhīdòng 张之洞 (ZHANG Zhidong)

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