Plan of Versailles, the site at which the treaty ending World War I was signed in 1919. COURTESY OF THE BEINECKE RARE BOOK AND MANUSCRIPT LIBRARY, YALE UNIVERSITY.
The Treaty of Versailles marking the end of World War I did little to resolve issues of China’s national sovereignty. Japan, which fought on the side of the Allies, occupied German holdings in Asia during the war, including China’s Shandong Peninsula. The treaty