The Chinese regard martial arts (wushu) 武术 as the essence of traditional Chinese sport. Wushu originated in the fighting skills that were part of military training in ancient China. These fighting skills were divided into two categories during the late Song dynasty 宋 (960–1279). The first category was entertainment: Books in the Song dynasty recorded martial arts performances such as wrestling, fighting among two or more opponents, fighting with sticks, and archery in cities and temples. The second category was self-defense: People practiced martial arts skills in secret societies for self-defense or military purposes.