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State-level Chinese language proficiency tests, Hànyǔ shuǐpíng kǎoshì (HSK), have been implemented since the mid-1980s to provide gatekeeping functions in the academic world (to set standards for university admissions) and in the business sector (to facilitate hiring and promotion decisions). The test takers most targeted include foreigners, overseas Chinese, and Chinese ethnic minorities. The status and longevity of HSK tests depend on their valid assessment of actual communicative skills and on the politics involved among institutions that develop, test, and administer them.