Jian LIU and Ruth HAYHOE
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Mao Zedong’s Cultural Revolution (1966–1976) transformed China’s educational system from what had been in place under Soviet influence in the early 1950s to a more revolutionary one. The new system valued practical knowledge over academic learning, viewed teachers and students as equals, and sought to eradicate so-called bourgeois tendencies. Although access to basic education was expanded during this period, higher education and scientific research suffered, as did many Chinese citizens who were subject to bitter experiences of class struggle.
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